Volcanoes and earthquakes up to now still keep the mystery. Volcanic phenomenon was beyond the reach of human hands. The strength and scale of the damage is in the “superhuman”. The eruption of a volcano in Iceland in the glacier Eyjafjallajökull evocative re-myths and legends about the mountain.
The power released in Eyjafjallajökull mountain is “saving” energy collected during more than 1,100 years. No wonder the “deposit” it in the form of volcanic ash in such a large volume, resulting in darkness in the skies of northern Europe and more than 16,000 flights were canceled. Recorded only twice mountain erupted, last occurred between the years 1821 and 1823.
These volcanoes form by vulkanologis Benjamin Edwards was able to deceive. The shape of ramps to make people think not an explosive eruption will occur.
According to Edwards, volcano eruptions are explosive magmanya usually rich in oxygen content and silicate. And, like a cone shape volcano mountain Fujiyama in Japan or Mount St. Helen’s, before the great eruption in 1980 that caused bud is cut off.
Another type of the mountains in Hawaii, such as Mauna Loa, which when magma erupts out of the thick and a little gas content, melting of the cracks along the body or from kepundan.
However, the type stratovolcano volcano as magma in Iceland have a new formation which is then mixed with the old magma. This condition can enrich with oxygen and silicate magma. Another X Factor is a thick layer of ice. Water from melting ice in contact with magma, according to Edwards, could trigger an explosive eruption.
Another theory put forward Edward Venzke of volcanism Global Network in Washington, USA. This network also involves the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
At the eruption (eruption), the first of March last, memancur magma out of the cracks, indicating no gas content. When the eruption stopped, the magma clog the cracks so that the pressure beneath the ice-covered peak rising. Rising magma temperatures melt the ice. Water formed that triggered explosive eruptions.
When Eyjafjallajökull erupt, watch out inappropriate activity will this affect the neighboring volcano, Katla, which is only about 25 kilometers from Eyjafjallajökull.
From the report published in the journal Developments in Quaternary Science by a team of scientists lead researcher Eric Stukell from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, both the mountain had erupted together in 1612, 1821, and in 1823. From the report read that Katla material spewed more than Eyjafjallajökull.
As published reports the Christian Science Monitor, found some evidence that the magma in the mountain together to increase their activities during the period 1999-2004. Katla has erupted several times and the peak grows. Stukell leadership team is now wary of Katla.
From the “hotspots”
Eyjafjallajökull eruption disaster caused losses up to Rp 2.18 trillion per day because of disrupted flights. 3-meter-high flooding caused about 1,000 people were evacuated. Massive volcanic eruptions are often catastrophic.
Volcanoes in Iceland and the Hawaiian emerged from the hotspot, (hot spots), where high-temperature magma out of the cracks in the area of ??the Sea Floor ocean ridge spreading, where the tectonic plates move away from each other.
Meanwhile, the formation of volcanoes in Indonesia is the area of ??subduction zones, where two tectonic plates meet each other so that the friction and cause high heat which produces magma. Magma is out to the surface as volcanoes. Although the formation process is different, the nature of some types of catastrophic volcanic eruption is the same.
Indonesia topped the disaster still massive volcanic eruption by eruption of Mount Toba-suspected location of Lake Toba is on now.
From the eruption intensity scale called the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI), the eruption of Mount Toba written down more than 8 or even more. When did it happen? “74,000 before the present” was the answer-which is about 74,000 years ago (Volcanoes in Human History, de Boer / Sanders, 2002).
After the Toba, the largest eruption in the history of the earth is the eruption of Mount Tambora on Sumbawa Island in April 1815. The death toll reached 70,000. They were killed instantly and many others followed some time later from starvation and disease.
Volcanic ash closes forests, fields, and fields. The height of the volcanic ash reaches the stratosphere where processes occur-climate and climate change patterns. Wet area to be dry, dry areas become wet. Unobstructed solar radiation. In the year 1816 in the United States known as “The Year Without a Summer” (Volcanoes in Human History, 2002).
Describing this catastrophic, poet Lord Byron wrote the poem “Darkness” that it reads:
Light of the sun disappeared, also stars; Leaving the darkness in endless space; No light, no trace, like a lump of ice the earth; all be blind and blackening in the air without a moon; Morning came and went and came again and there was no day; And people will forget its care in the midst of fear; will grasp this pain ….